The Law on Work Permits of Foreigners provides a legal framework about the employment of foreigners in Turkey by specifying the rules and the principles to be applied for the procedures concerning work permits of foreigners. The law, in its relevant sections, specifies types work permits, outlines exemptions and restrictions and formulates the rules about granting, extending, rejecting and canceling the working permissions.
Turkish Ministry of Labor and Social Security is entitled as a competent authority in the work permit process of foreigners. However certain Ministries, Public Institutions and Organizations are also empowered to grant working permissions. On the basis of their existing authorities arising from relevant Turkish legislation, Prime Ministry, Ministry of National Defense, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Economy , General Directorate of Free Zones and Council of Higher Education have the competence to grant working permission for specific categories of professions.
As a general rule individuals who have no citizenship bond with the Republic of Turkey, either to work dependently or independently, are obliged to have a valid working permission before they start to work. Exceptionally, for the working periods no more than one month, in the state of necessity or for the sake of state benefits, by prior notification of relevant authorities and with the ministry approval, working permit may be given after starting to work.
The rules and principles stipulated in the Law on Work Permits of Foreigners are applicable to the foreigners working dependently or independently in Turkey. Those foreigners who are having on the job training and the real and judicial persons that employ foreigners are considered within the scope of Law No. 4817 as well. The term “foreigner” in general refers to a person who is not a Turkish citizen under the Turkish Citizenship Law. However those Turkish citizens by birth who got permission to renounce citizenship from the Ministry of Interior are excluded from the scope of Law No. 4817. Moreover press reporters who are subject to Press Law, Members of Foreign Press Organs, those foreigners who are exempted from working permission in their employment in Turkey due to reciprocity principle, international and European Union law and those foreigners who are employed or granted with working permission by the other Ministries, Public Institutions and Organizations are not considered within the scope of the Law on Work Permits of Foreigners.
In accordance with the article 15 of the Law on Work Permits of Foreigners, certain professions are reserved only for Turkish citizens. Different legal instruments in Turkey, prohibits foreigners to work either dependently or independently in certain professions and occupations. Foreigners are not allowed to work; (i) as attorney (ii) as notary public (iii) as security guard at private or public institutions (iv) as customs broker and assistant customs broker (v) as dentist, midwife and nurse (vi) as pharmacist (vii) as Veterinarian  (vii) as director in private hospitals.
Moreover in accordance with Turkish Cabotage Law
“The right to catch or obtain fish, oysters, mussels, sponges, pearls, coral, mother-or-pearl and the like, extract sand, gravel and the like, extract and salvage sunken ships and vessels or shipwrecks and the like either on the surface or on the bottom of the sea, perform diving, searching, piloting and maritime supply, work as captain, engineer, secretary, crew or workman or in another capacity on Turkish maritime vessels, and carry out wharf porterage or any type of maritime business, within Turkish continental waters, shall belong exclusively to Turkish nationals.”
 Law No. 5901 Date of Enactment: 29.05.2009 Published in the Official Gazette 0n 12 June 2009, No. 27256