TIME ZONE : EASTERN EUROPE TIME ZONE (GMT +2)
TRAFFIC FLOW DIRECTION : RIGHT
SURFACE : 783 562 km2
POPULATION : 76 667 864 (31.12.2013)
Because of the geographical position there are several climate varieties in Turkey. Milder climate is observed in the coastal regions by the impact of seas and continental climate is observed in the northern regions because of the mountains.
Continental Climate: Dry and hot in summers, warm and rainy in winters. The amount of annual precipitation is low. Daily and annual temperature difference is high and vegetation cover is steppe. Continental climate is met in Central Anatolia Region, East Anatolia Region, in most parts of Southeastern Anatolia Region and in the internal parts of Aegean and Mediterranean Region.
Mediterranean Climate: Dry and hot in summers, rainy in winters. It is seen in the Mediterranean Sea Coast, the Aegean Sea Coast and the Marmara Sea Coast. However, in Marmara Region, which is located in a transition zone, the impact of Mediterranean Climate decreases from south to north.
Black Sea Climate: All of the seasons are rainy and there are many forests in the region. Maximum precipitation is seen in the autumn. This climate type is seen in Black Sea Coast and Northern Marmara Regions.
Turkey is subdivided into provinces and districts for administrative purposes. Governors hold administrative power in provinces and kaymakams hold administrative power in districts. Refugees are given a residence permit by the Ministry of Internal Affairs in 62 of 81 provinces.
For detailed information about residency and 62 main cities see: Residence Permit
Public Holidays Date
New Year January 1
National Sovereignty and Children’s Day April 23
Labor's Day May 1
The Commemoration of Atatürk, Youth and Sports Day May 19
Victory Day August 30
Republic Day October 29
Ramadan Feast 3 days (movable feast)
Sacrifice Feast 4 days (movable feast)
Official Language: Turkish
Government Type: Republic
Country Dialing Code: 0090
Interprovincial transportation in Turkey is made by bus, train, plane and sea bus. Bus is the most preferred means of interprovincial transportation because of its affordable price and wide service network. You can buy bus tickets from bus company offices or bus terminals.
Railway transportation is another widely preferred means of transportation because it is comfortable and affordable. However, railway transportation is not found in every district. You can find railway lines in the table below. You can buy your tickets from the Republic of Turkey State Railways (TCDD) train stations or www.tcdd.gov.tr .
|Railway Lines||Route||Railway Lines||Route|
|Anadolu Express||Ankara -İstanbul – Ankara||Çukurova Mavi Express||Ankara – Adana – Ankara|
|Boğaziçi Express||İstanbul – Eskişehir – İstanbul||Doğu Express||İstanbul – Kars – İstanbul|
|Karesi Express – İzmir Mavi||Ankara – İzmir – Ankara||Vangölü Express||İstanbul – Tatvan – İstanbul|
|Eskişehir – Cumhuriyet – Başkent – Sakarya Express||İstanbul – Eskişehir – İstanbul||Güney Kurtalan Express||İstanbul – Diyarbakır – İstanbul|
|Fatih Express – Ankara Express||Ankara – İstanbul – Ankara||4 Eylül Mavi Treni||Ankara – Malatya – Ankara|
|Konya Mavi||İzmir – Konya – İzmir||Toros Express||Adana – Eskişehir – Adana|
|6 Eylül Express – 17 Eylül Express||İzmir – Balıkesir – İzmir||Meram Express||İstanbul – Konya – İstanbul|
|Erciyes Express||Kayseri- Adana-Kayseri||İç Anadolu Mavi Treni||İstanbul – Adana – İstanbul|
|Fırat Express||Elazığ – Adana – Elazığ||Ege Express||İzmir – Balıkesir – İzmir|
İstanbul-Haydarpaşa train station is temporarily closed because of the high-speed train operations.
Intraprovincial transportation is provided by bus, minibus, tramway and subway. Card or token/jeton is used to get on tramway or subway. The minibuses' fee is paid in the vehicle. While, for some buses the fee is paid inside the vehicle, in general it is mostly paid by ticket.
Working hours of the West are generally valid in Turkey. Banks and bureaus are open from 09:00 to 17:30. Government agencies give lunch break between 12:00 and 13:00 while banks give lunch break between 12:30 and 13:30. Government agencies and banks are closed in the weekend (Saturday and Sunday).
The Currency of the Republic of Turkey is Turkish Lira. Subsidiary of Turkish Lira is kuruş. One Turkish Lira (TL) is equal to one hundred Kuruş (Kr).
You can find the current coins and bills below: