Basic information about Turkey

TIME ZONE                                  :  EASTERN EUROPE TIME ZONE (GMT +2)


SURFACE                                      : 783 562 km2

POPULATION                              : 76 667 864 (31.12.2013)

Because of the geographical position there are several climate varieties in Turkey. Milder climate is observed in the coastal regions by the impact of seas and continental climate is observed in the northern regions because of the mountains.

Continental Climate: Dry and hot in summers, warm and rainy in winters. The amount of annual precipitation is low. Daily and annual temperature difference is high and vegetation cover is steppe. Continental climate is met in Central Anatolia Region, East Anatolia Region, in most parts of Southeastern Anatolia Region and in the internal parts of Aegean and Mediterranean Region.

Mediterranean Climate: Dry and hot in summers, rainy in winters. It is seen in the Mediterranean Sea Coast, the Aegean Sea Coast and the Marmara Sea Coast. However, in Marmara Region, which is located in a transition zone, the impact of Mediterranean Climate decreases from south to north.

Black Sea Climate: All of the seasons are rainy and there are many forests in the region. Maximum precipitation is seen in the autumn. This climate type is seen in Black Sea Coast and Northern Marmara Regions.

Turkey is subdivided into provinces and districts for administrative purposes. Governors hold administrative power in provinces and kaymakams hold administrative power in districts. Refugees are given a residence permit by the Ministry of Internal Affairs in 62 of 81 provinces.

For detailed information about residency and 62 main cities see: Residence Permit

Public Holidays                                                                                 Date

New Year                                                                                           January 1

National Sovereignty and Children’s Day                                    April 23

Labor's Day                                                                                       May 1

The Commemoration of Atatürk, Youth and Sports Day          May 19

Victory Day                                                                                        August 30

Republic Day                                                                                     October 29

Ramadan Feast                                                                                 3 days (movable feast)

Sacrifice Feast                                                                                   4 days (movable feast)

Official Language: Turkish

Capital:  Ankara

Government Type: Republic

Regime: Democracy

Country Dialing Code:  0090



Inter-provincial Transportation

Interprovincial transportation in Turkey is made by bus, train, plane and sea bus. Bus is the most preferred means of interprovincial transportation because of its affordable price and wide service network. You can buy bus tickets from bus company offices or bus terminals.

Railway transportation is another widely preferred means of transportation  because it is comfortable and affordable. However, railway transportation is not found in every district. You can find railway lines in the table below. You can buy your tickets from the Republic of Turkey State Railways (TCDD) train stations or .

Railway Lines Route Railway  Lines Route
Anadolu Express Ankara -İstanbul – Ankara Çukurova Mavi Express Ankara – Adana – Ankara
Boğaziçi Express İstanbul – Eskişehir – İstanbul Doğu Express İstanbul – Kars – İstanbul
Karesi Express – İzmir Mavi Ankara – İzmir – Ankara Vangölü Express İstanbul – Tatvan – İstanbul
Eskişehir – Cumhuriyet – Başkent – Sakarya Express İstanbul – Eskişehir – İstanbul Güney Kurtalan Express İstanbul – Diyarbakır – İstanbul
Fatih Express – Ankara Express Ankara – İstanbul – Ankara 4 Eylül Mavi Treni Ankara – Malatya – Ankara
Konya Mavi İzmir – Konya – İzmir Toros Express Adana – Eskişehir – Adana
6 Eylül Express – 17 Eylül Express İzmir – Balıkesir – İzmir Meram Express İstanbul – Konya – İstanbul
Erciyes Express Kayseri- Adana-Kayseri İç Anadolu Mavi Treni İstanbul – Adana – İstanbul
Fırat Express Elazığ – Adana – Elazığ Ege Express İzmir – Balıkesir – İzmir

İstanbul-Haydarpaşa train station is temporarily closed because of the high-speed train operations.

Intra-provincial Transportation

Intraprovincial transportation is provided by bus, minibus, tramway and subway. Card or token/jeton is used to get on tramway or subway. The minibuses' fee is paid in the vehicle. While, for some buses the fee is paid inside the vehicle, in general it is mostly paid by ticket.

Working Hours

Working hours of the West are generally valid in Turkey. Banks and bureaus are open from 09:00 to 17:30. Government agencies give lunch break between 12:00 and 13:00 while banks give lunch break between 12:30 and 13:30. Government agencies and banks are closed in the weekend (Saturday and Sunday).



The Currency of the Republic of Turkey is Turkish Lira. Subsidiary of Turkish Lira is kuruş. One Turkish Lira (TL) is equal to one hundred Kuruş (Kr).

You can find the current coins and bills below:


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